Furnace oil is a dark, viscous residual fuel oil which is obtained by blending residual products from various refining processes with suitable diluents usually middle distillates to obtain the required fuel oil grades. These fuel oil grades are similar in nature and have been marketed under different specifications in various countries. In India it is sold under BIS specification IS 1593-1982 (Reaffirmed 1997), Medium Viscosity Grade 2 (MV 2 – 180 cst FO) / High Viscosity Grade (HV – 380 cst FO).
Furnace Oil is one of the cheapest fuels available for industrial use. It is a by-product of petroleum refineries.
main users of FO. This can be stored in vertical as well as horizontal tanks, above ground or even underground in some cases.
For direct burning, FO is viscous as well as not suitable for complete combustion. It is pre-heated to 55 degrees Celsius onwards, depending upon application. The flow increases with temperature and it improves the combustion also. A water based scrubber is used in the exhaust chimney of furnace, which arrests considerable amount of carbon suite and improves the emissions.
The entire FO yard, as per IS standards, pre-heating in storage tanks as well as pipes& Pumps etc, pumping station, level controls, control-panels and entire distribution pipeline is designed taking into consideration the application, required capacity of storage, logistics, available space and government norms.
Furnace Oil Uses :
→ As fuel for Power Generation in DG Sets
→ As fuel for Boilers/ Furnaces/ Air preheater/ Any other Heaters
→ Fuel for Bunkering
→ Fuel/ Feedstock in Fertilizer Plants
Furnace oil is a class C product having Flash Point above 66 OC. Since this is a residual fuel, there has to be gradual filtration system to prevent the filter choking and fuel nozzles choking. Due to its viscous nature, it has to be heated to improve its flow and to a proper temperature for proper atomisation. Normally gear pumps are preferred to avoid cavitation problems.